Our Lady of Tectonic Process

The following excerpt is a description of what is now the Los Angeles CA area. Note the title of the work, at bottom. The Portola/Crespi expedition is considered the first land-based, Caucasian exploration of what is now the State of California. So…just who were the people these Native Americans referred to, where indeed did they come from, and what route did they take to get there? And how long did they stay? And were the fair- and red-haired children Crespi mentions as having observed, their children?

July 28 [1769]
We set out at six o’clock in the morning from this grand plain and watering place of Santiago, following the same northwestward course of these last days’ marches, keeping on over this same plain, skirting the range on our right (to the north)…The scouts returned last night and said they came upon a full-flowing river a league and a half away…Its course comes out of the mountain range that must lie about two or three leagues away from us, from northeast to southwest…This river bed is very much lined with trees: white cottonwoods, willows, sycamores and other kinds we don’t recognize. By what we’ve seen from the sands along its banks, this river must plainly carry very large floods, and we had some trouble crossing it even now, in the depth of the dry season and dog days. There will be no crossing it in the rainy season…

We made camp close to the river here, and we have felt three strong earthquakes within less than an hour today at noon. The first and most violent must have lasted the length of a Creed, the other two less than a Hail Mary; a great shaking of the ground however was felt during all three. This is a most beautiful spot–with a great amount of soil and water, and this beautiful river going as it does, through the midst of the wide and far-ranging plain here–for founding a mission…

The heathens of this village here, who have been spending the whole day with us, brought and showed us nine cutlasses without hafts, along with four or five eyeless matting needles and a thick spike about half a yard long, all of which, they gave us to understand, had been given to them upcountry, toward the north, by some people there like ourselves, and we also understood there to be Fathers like ourselves. Whether this means they have a connection with New Mexico or the Apaches we cannot tell, or, whether some nation may have intruded upcountry toward the northward whither they were pointing.

Cover Image of Henry Wagner’s book Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo,
California Historical Society

July 29
We set out at two o’clock in the afternoon from here at the famous, large, pleasant and full-flowing River of the Sweetest Name of Jesus of the Earthquakes, crossing its bed with difficulty because of its swiftness…

July 31
On going about two leagues we came across another stream with some running water, which must carry very large floods in season because of the great deal of sand it has on its banks. We came upon such a vast number of rose bushes that a large hundredweight could have been made up with the flowers that we saw open and blooming. From horseback I plucked more than four dozen of them that came into my hands. The grapevines are countless in number, some of them large with very large clusters. We twice came upon woods so dense that it was necessary for the soldiers to clear a way to get through the various sorts of trees, willows, grapevines, cumin, holythistles, and many other kinds of tall weeds, such that it is a vastly pleasant site to see. There are vast numbers of antelopes on this plain…tracks of very large animals are seen…they say that in the mountain range running along on the north, there are a great many bears.

August 2
Our Captain and the scouts reported that about half a league or more from this spot…to the west, they came upon volcanoes of pitch coming out of the ground like springs of water. It boils up molten (and there must have been about forty of these springs, and perhaps many more, they said), and the water runs off one way and the pitch another. They reported…seeing very large swamplands of it, enough they said to have caulked many ships with…we christened them The Volcanoes of Pitch of Porciuncula. We all felt four quakes at dawn today; since we began hearing them at the Sweet Name of Jesus river, there have been fourteen, very persistent and strong though not long-lasting, and we attribute these continual earthquakes to the pitch volcanoes here.

August 6
They told us that upcountry–pointing northeastward–there were people like us–pointing to the soldiers–with guns, swords, and horses–pointing to our mounts–and there were three Fathers like ourselves (pointing to our habits); that two or three of themselves had been there; that it was reached in thirteen days’ travel from sunrise to sunset, and there was sea close by, and many large animals, which from their commentary and gestures, we thought must have been buffaloes; and that a great many people from there had come on horseback to their country, and had returned. Whether this is New Mexico or not, who can say?

Brown, A.K., ed. 2001. A Description of Distant Roads, Original Journals of the First Expedition into California, 1769-1770, by Juan Crespi

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